Tag: Second Temple Period

Jesus’ temptation in the wilderness

This entry is part 7 of 7 in the series Satan & demons: Thomas Farrar's commentaryIn response to an eight part study I wrote on Christ’s temptation in the wilderness, Tom Farrar has written a four part response to just one of my arguments. I address all four parts of his response in this article. Part one: midrash & historical […] 

Satanological terminology in the Synoptics: the devil

This entry is part 4 of 8 in the series The Yetzer in the Wilderness: Jesus and the Evil InclinationThe term ‘the devil’ (ho diabolos), is virtually never used in pre-Christian Second Temple literature outside the Old Greek texts of the Hebrew Scriptures. In the Old Greek texts1 it is found in in 1 Chronicles 21:1 (of the adversary which attacks […] 

Satanological terminology in the Synoptics: summary

This entry is part 7 of 8 in the series The Yetzer in the Wilderness: Jesus and the Evil InclinationThe following list summarizes the lexical evidence for the Synoptics’ satanological terminology in Second Temple pre-Christian texts. 1. The term ‘satan’ (satanas in Greek), is used in Sirach 21:27 of the evil inclination. It is also used in 1 Enoch (41:9; […] 

Satanological terminology in the Synoptics: the evil one

This entry is part 5 of 8 in the series The Yetzer in the Wilderness: Jesus and the Evil InclinationThe term ‘the evil one’ (ton ponērou), has no Second Temple pre-Christian witness as a reference to a supernatural evil being. It is found in one fifteenth century Ethiopian manuscript of 1 Enoch (manuscript A, 1 Enoch 69:15), but not the […] 

Dualism in the Synoptics

This entry is part 8 of 8 in the series The Yetzer in the Wilderness: Jesus and the Evil InclinationThe paucity of pre-Christian witness to the satanological terminology in the Synoptic temptation accounts, together with the absence from the Synoptics of established Second Temple terms for supernatural Satan figures (Satanael, Mastema, Belial, Shemihazah, Azâzêl, etc), gives reason to doubt the […] 

Satanological terminology in the Synoptics: the tempter

This entry is part 6 of 8 in the series The Yetzer in the Wilderness: Jesus and the Evil InclinationThe term ‘the tempter’ (ho peirazwn), has no pre-Christian witness in the intertestamental or Qumran literature at all. The term appears in History of the Rechabites 2:9;1 4:1-2,2 but only in the Greek text belonging to the Christian era; it is absent from […] 

Literary genre of the wilderness temptation

This entry is part 1 of 8 in the series The Yetzer in the Wilderness: Jesus and the Evil InclinationDespite its superficial appearance as a simple historical record, the Synoptic account of Jesus’ temptation in the wilderness1 has often been interpreted as symbolic or parabolic of Jesus’ experiences, since the early Christian era.2 The popularity of this interpretation waxed and waned […] 

New Testament satanology & rabbinic literature

This entry is part 5 of 7 in the series Satan & demons: Thomas Farrar's commentaryEx-Christadelphian Tom Farrar has written an article discussing the relevance of post-Christian rabbinic literature to the satanology of the New Testament and early Christianity. His article contains some useful information, but also contains some highly misleading statements. How relevant is rabbinic literature to an understanding […]