Tag: Apostolic Fathers

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: 2 Clement

This entry is part 11 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersTraditionally listed in the Apostolic Fathers, 2 Clement is now recognized as a pseudepigraphal work of the mid-second century at earliest. There is one use of diabolos in 2 Clement. 2 Clement 18: 2 For I myself am utterly […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Quadratus

This entry is part 13 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersThe early second century Christian apologist Quadratus is known only by a fragment of his work quoted by the fourth century Christian historian Eusebius.1 ‘OUR Saviour’s works, moreover, were always present: for they were real, consisting of those who […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Epistle to Diognetus

This entry is part 12 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersTypically dated to the late second century,1 this letter presents views which are remarkably different to those of the Apologists who were his contemporaries. Unlike the Apologists, the writer’s soteriology does not describe Christ as a ransom payment to the […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Martyrdom of Polycarp

This entry is part 8 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersOn the basis of the most likely date for the death of Polycarp himself,1 the Martyrdom of Polycarp is typically dated to the late second century.2  The extant textual tradition consists of seven Greek manuscripts dating from the tenth […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Fragments of Papias

This entry is part 9 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersPapias was a bishop of Hierapolis who wrote a work known as ‘Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord’, which was probably written around the middle of the second century,1 but which has been lost; only fragments of his work […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Epistles of Ignatius

This entry is part 10 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersTypically dated between 110 and 117 CE,1 seven epistles of Ignatius are recognized as genuine,2 with the ‘middle recension’ (quoted by Eusebius), considered the most reliable.3 Ignatius uses the satanological terms ‘ruler of this age’ (Ephesians 17.1; 19.1, Magnesians 1.1, Trallians […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians

This entry is part 7 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersComplications in the internal structure of this letter have given rise to much dispute about its date, with a proposal being made that it actually consists of two letters written at different dates, which have been combined into one. […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Shepherd of Hermas

This entry is part 6 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersComplications in the textual tradition, and inconsistencies in the internal evidence, have prevented firm consensus on the dating of Hermas. It is cited as a complete work by Irenaeus nearly the end of the second century (c. 175), but […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: 1 Clement

This entry is part 5 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersTypically dated to the end of the first century,1 1 Clement uses no satanological terminology. There is one use of the verb antikeimai, ‘adversary’ (51:1). Although this verb is applied to the man of sin in 2 Thessalonians 2:4, the […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Epistle of Barnabas

This entry is part 4 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersWritten between 70 CE and 135 CE,1 with an early second century date typically preferred,2 the Epistle of Barnabas presents clear evidence of strong mythological belief, drawing on an earlier Jewish textual source.3 Though diabolos is never used and […]