Recent posts

The temptation of Christ: a ten point idiosyncratic interpretation

Ex-Christadelphian Tom Farrar has written a ten point interpretation of the temptation of Christ in the wilderness, aimed at supporting his personal satanology. The list is idiosyncratic in that it makes various arguments which are unique to Farrar, and which are contradicted or dismissed in the scholarly literature. This article lists and critiques each of Farrar’s points. Claim 1: The […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Martyrdom of Polycarp

On the basis of the most likely date for the death of Polycarp himself,1 the Martyrdom of Polycarp is typically dated to the late second century.2  The extant textual tradition consists of seven Greek manuscripts dating from the tenth to the twelfth century, one thirteenth century manuscript, Codex Mosquensis (the Moscow Manuscript, which is notable for its many unique readings),3 […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Fragments of Papias

Papias was a bishop of Hierapolis who wrote a work known as ‘Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord’, which was probably written around the middle of the second century,1 but which has been lost; only fragments of his work survive,2 as quotations in later Christian writings.3 The portions of writing attributed to Papias are found in Irenaeus (c. 180),4 Eusebius […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Epistles of Ignatius

Typically dated between 110 and 117 CE,1 seven epistles of Ignatius are recognized as genuine,2 with the ‘middle recension’ (quoted by Eusebius), considered the most reliable.3 Ignatius uses the satanological terms ‘ruler of this age’ (Ephesians 17.1; 19.1, Magnesians 1.1, Trallians 4.2, Romans 7.1, Philadelphians 6.2), ‘satan’ (Ephesians 13.1), and ‘the devil’ (Ephesians 10.3, Trallians 8.1, Romans 5.3, Smyrnaeans 9.9.1). Ignatius treats […]