Category: satanology

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians

This entry is part 7 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersComplications in the internal structure of this letter have given rise to much dispute about its date, with a proposal being made that it actually consists of two letters written at different dates, which have been combined into one. […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Shepherd of Hermas

This entry is part 6 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersComplications in the textual tradition, and inconsistencies in the internal evidence, have prevented firm consensus on the dating of Hermas. It is cited as a complete work by Irenaeus nearly the end of the second century (c. 175), but […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: 1 Clement

This entry is part 5 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersTypically dated to the end of the first century,1 1 Clement uses no satanological terminology. There is one use of the verb antikeimai, ‘adversary’ (51:1). Although this verb is applied to the man of sin in 2 Thessalonians 2:4, the […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Epistle of Barnabas

This entry is part 4 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersWritten between 70 CE and 135 CE,1 with an early second century date typically preferred,2 the Epistle of Barnabas presents clear evidence of strong mythological belief, drawing on an earlier Jewish textual source.3 Though diabolos is never used and […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: The Didache

This entry is part 3 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersScholarly consensus dates the Didache at the end of the first century.1 Although the Didache shares a Jewish ‘Two Ways’ textual source with the Epistle of Barnabas2 (represented in Qumran texts such as the ‘Community Rule’ or ‘Manual of […] 

Taxonomic analysis in satanological studies

This entry is part 2 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersThe following table presents a taxonomy for assessing the extent to which a text exhibits belief in supernatural evil. Within this taxonomy the term ‘mythological’ refers to supernatural evil (‘cosmological’ and ‘mythological’ are both used in the literature). Each […] 

Steve Cox & the ‘angels which sinned’

This entry is part 2 of 7 in the series Satan & demons: Thomas Farrar's commentaryThomas Farrar has written three critiques of Christadelphian commentators Steve Cox’s article on ‘the angels which sinned’ in 2 Peter and Jude. Cox’s article can be found here; Farrar’s three articles can be found here, here, and here. Two of Farrar’s articles are examined in […] 

Supernatural evil in the Apostolic Fathers

This entry is part 1 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersThe writings of the Apostolic Fathers are recognized as containing a satanology and demonology very different in character to later Christian texts. Satan is almost completely absent from the Apostolic Fathers, and neither demons, nor demon possession and exorcism, are […]