Category: Bible

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Quadratus

This entry is part 13 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersThe early second century Christian apologist Quadratus is known only by a fragment of his work quoted by the fourth century Christian historian Eusebius.1 ‘OUR Saviour’s works, moreover, were always present: for they were real, consisting of those who […] 

Who says “The devil made me do it”?

This entry is part 4 of 7 in the series Satan & demons: Thomas Farrar's commentaryEx-Christadelphian Tom Farrar has written an article objecting to the way Christadelphians characterize mainstream Christian comments about the role of Satan in their life. Over time, in discussions with Christadelphians, I have repeatedly encountered the accusation that Christians who affirm the existence of a personal devil […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Martyrdom of Polycarp

This entry is part 8 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersOn the basis of the most likely date for the death of Polycarp himself,1 the Martyrdom of Polycarp is typically dated to the late second century.2  The extant textual tradition consists of seven Greek manuscripts dating from the tenth […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Fragments of Papias

This entry is part 9 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersPapias was a bishop of Hierapolis who wrote a work known as ‘Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord’, which was probably written around the middle of the second century,1 but which has been lost; only fragments of his work […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians

This entry is part 7 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersComplications in the internal structure of this letter have given rise to much dispute about its date, with a proposal being made that it actually consists of two letters written at different dates, which have been combined into one. […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Epistle of Barnabas

This entry is part 4 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersWritten between 70 CE and 135 CE,1 with an early second century date typically preferred,2 the Epistle of Barnabas presents clear evidence of strong mythological belief, drawing on an earlier Jewish textual source.3 Though diabolos is never used and […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: The Didache

This entry is part 3 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersScholarly consensus dates the Didache at the end of the first century.1 Although the Didache shares a Jewish ‘Two Ways’ textual source with the Epistle of Barnabas2 (represented in Qumran texts such as the ‘Community Rule’ or ‘Manual of […] 

Taxonomic analysis in satanological studies

This entry is part 2 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersThe following table presents a taxonomy for assessing the extent to which a text exhibits belief in supernatural evil. Within this taxonomy the term ‘mythological’ refers to supernatural evil (‘cosmological’ and ‘mythological’ are both used in the literature). Each […] 

Supernatural evil in the Apostolic Fathers

This entry is part 1 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersThe writings of the Apostolic Fathers are recognized as containing a satanology and demonology very different in character to later Christian texts. Satan is almost completely absent from the Apostolic Fathers, and neither demons, nor demon possession and exorcism, are […] 

Living On the Edge: a book for doubting Christians

Living On the Edge: a book for doubting Christians Today Christians in the Western world are typically living in a post-Christian society. Christian beliefs are met with skepticism, and people see little reason to believe. Christians are confronted with daily challenges to their faith, and often struggle to understand the relevance of Christianity to modern life. Professional surveys indicate the following reasons why young Christians lose their […]