Category: Apologetics

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Shepherd of Hermas

This entry is part 6 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersComplications in the textual tradition, and inconsistencies in the internal evidence, have prevented firm consensus on the dating of Hermas. It is cited as a complete work by Irenaeus nearly the end of the second century (c. 175), but […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: 1 Clement

This entry is part 5 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersTypically dated to the end of the first century,1 1 Clement uses no satanological terminology. There is one use of the verb antikeimai, ‘adversary’ (51:1). Although this verb is applied to the man of sin in 2 Thessalonians 2:4, the […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: Epistle of Barnabas

This entry is part 4 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersWritten between 70 CE and 135 CE,1 with an early second century date typically preferred,2 the Epistle of Barnabas presents clear evidence of strong mythological belief, drawing on an earlier Jewish textual source.3 Though diabolos is never used and […] 

Satanology of the Apostolic Fathers: The Didache

This entry is part 3 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersScholarly consensus dates the Didache at the end of the first century.1 Although the Didache shares a Jewish ‘Two Ways’ textual source with the Epistle of Barnabas2 (represented in Qumran texts such as the ‘Community Rule’ or ‘Manual of […] 

Taxonomic analysis in satanological studies

This entry is part 2 of 14 in the series Then the Devil Left: Satan’s lack of presence in the Apostolic FathersThe following table presents a taxonomy for assessing the extent to which a text exhibits belief in supernatural evil. Within this taxonomy the term ‘mythological’ refers to supernatural evil (‘cosmological’ and ‘mythological’ are both used in the literature). Each […] 

Steve Cox & the ‘angels which sinned’

This entry is part 2 of 7 in the series Satan & demons: Thomas Farrar's commentaryThomas Farrar has written three critiques of Christadelphian commentators Steve Cox’s article on ‘the angels which sinned’ in 2 Peter and Jude. Cox’s article can be found here; Farrar’s three articles can be found here, here, and here. Two of Farrar’s articles are examined in […] 

What do Christians & witch doctors have in common?

This entry is part 1 of 7 in the series Satan & demons: Thomas Farrar's commentaryThomas Farrar, previously a Christadelphian, not only believes in a literal supernatural satan and demons, but also believes in the efficacy and value of traditional African witch doctors. In this correspondence with a Christadelphian, Thomas explains the reason for his position. Furthermore, by denying the […] 

The Historical Jesus: Recommended Reading

Abstract With the rise of interest in studies of the historical Jesus and the increasing presence of mythicism on the internet, Bible believers are advised to be well informed on the subject of Jesus historicity. This article provides a balanced reading list of resources presenting the evidence for Jesus’ historicity and the authenticity of the Jesus tradition, and addressing mythicist […] 

Living On the Edge: a book for doubting Christians

Living On the Edge: a book for doubting Christians Today Christians in the Western world are typically living in a post-Christian society. Christian beliefs are met with skepticism, and people see little reason to believe. Christians are confronted with daily challenges to their faith, and often struggle to understand the relevance of Christianity to modern life. Professional surveys indicate the following reasons why young Christians lose their […] 

Genocide or Hyperbole? Another look at the Conquest Narrative in Joshua – 3

Genocide or Hyperbole? Another look at the Conquest Narrative in Joshua – 3 The example of hyperbolic numbers of battle casualties employed to glorify the king / deity is closely related to the idea of hyperbole posited to give context to Joshua 10 and 11. Flannagan continues: Some examples will illustrate this. The Merneptah Stele states “Yanoam was made nonexistent; […]