Recent posts

Jesus’ temptation in the wilderness

In response to an eight part study I wrote on Christ’s temptation in the wilderness, Tom Farrar has written a four part response to just one of my arguments. I address all four parts of his response in this article. Part one: midrash & historical narrative This section addresses the first part of Farrar’s response. Farrar makes the following claim. […] 

Satanological terminology in the Synoptics: the devil

The term ‘the devil’ (ho diabolos), is virtually never used in pre-Christian Second Temple literature outside the Old Greek texts of the Hebrew Scriptures. In the Old Greek texts1 it is found in in 1 Chronicles 21:1 (of the adversary which attacks Israel, prompting David’s census), Esther 7:4; 8:1 (of Haman), Psalm 108:6 (of a human slanderer), Job 1:6-9, 12; 2:1-4, […] 

Satanological terminology in the Synoptics: summary

The following list summarizes the lexical evidence for the Synoptics’ satanological terminology in Second Temple pre-Christian texts. 1. The term ‘satan’ (satanas in Greek), is used in Sirach 21:27 of the evil inclination. It is also used in 1 Enoch (41:9; 53:3; 54:6), Jubilees (23:29; 40:9; 46:2; 50:5), Qumran texts 1QH 4:6; 45:3; 1QSb 1:8, 4Q504 1–2 iv 12, and […] 

Satanological terminology in the Synoptics: the evil one

The term ‘the evil one’ (ton ponērou), has no Second Temple pre-Christian witness as a reference to a supernatural evil being. It is found in one fifteenth century Ethiopian manuscript of 1 Enoch (manuscript A, 1 Enoch 69:15), but not the other two main recensions (manuscripts B and C).1 Evidence against the reading ‘the evil one’ is that Satan in […]